Merchant, S.N., Vovk, A., Kalash, D., Hovencamp, N., Aukhil, I., Harrison, P., et al.

Background: The comparative treatment response of children and young adults with localised aggressive periodontitis (LAP) affecting primary and permanent dentition is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of non-surgical periodontal therapy with adjunctive systemic antibiotics on the clinical outcome of children/young adults with primary versus permanent dentition affected by LAP.
Methods: A cohort of 97 African-American participants between the ages of 5 and 21 (30M; 66F; 22 primary and 75 permanent dentition affected), diagnosed with LAP, were included. Patients presented with no significant medical history. All patients underwent periodontal therapy, which consisted of full mouth mechanical debridement at baseline, and three-, six-, and 12-month appointments. Additionally, all patients were prescribed a one-week regimen of systemic antibiotics at the initial appointment. Clinical parameters were analysed, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment levels (CALs), bleeding on probing (BOP) and percentage of visible plaque.
Results: Overall, periodontal therapy was found to be effective in improving the clinical outcomes of both primary and permanent dentitions. Although baseline CALs were similar between the groups, the reductions in mean CALs at three, six and 12 months, as well as reduction in % plaque at three months, were significantly greater in the primary dentition as compared to the permanent dentition.
Conclusions: Non-surgical therapy with systemic antibiotics is effective for LAP in both the primary and permanent dentitions. A greater reduction in CALs in LAP of the primary dentition may suggest that younger children may carry a greater propensity for positive treatment outcomes and healing potential as compared to children/young adults with permanent dentition.

J Periodontol 2014: 1-13. [Epub ahead of print.]