Meyer-Bäumer, A., Eick, S., Mertens, C., Uhlmann, L., Hagenfeld, D., Eickholz, P., Kim, T.S., Cosgarea, R.

Abstract: To assess the association between presence of periodontal pathogens and recurrence of disease in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) after active periodontal therapy (APT) and further influencing factors.

Material and methods: Microbiological samples were taken from 73 patients with AgP 5 to 17 years after APT at 292 sites (deepest site per quadrant). Real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Uni- and multivariate analyses evaluated the associations between pathogens and recurrence of disease, smoking and adjunctive antibiotic therapy.

Results: At re-examination A. actinomycetemcomitans could be detected in six patients (8.2%), P. gingivalis in 24 (32.9%), T. forsythia in 31 (42.5%) and T. denticola in 35 (48.0%). Increased levels of T. forsythia and T. denticola at re-examination were significantly associated with recurrence of disease in multivariate analyses (OR: m12.72, p < 0.001; OR 5.55, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, high counts of T. denticola were found in patients with increased percentage of sites with clinical attachment levels (CAL) ≥6 mm compared to those with low counts (13.8% versus 3.2%, p = 0.005).

Conclusion: In patients with recurrence of disease, T. forsythia and T. denticola were detected more frequently and in higher counts. Furthermore, T. denticola was found more frequently in patients with increased CAL.

Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2014; 41 (7): 662-672.